Site News
Warning: This wiki contains spoilers. Read at your own risk!

Social media: If you would like, please join our Discord server, and/or follow us on Twitter (X) or Tumblr!

Cross-Wiki Week 2023: From September 23 to October 1, make contributions to NIWA wikis and participating affiliates that you normally don't edit for a chance to win a Nintendo eShop gift card! See here for more details.

Help:IPA key

From Fire Emblem Wiki, your source on Fire Emblem information. By fans, for fans.

This page is a key for International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) symbols.

The phonemes of both General American (GA, "standard" accent in the US) and Received Pronunciation (RP, "standard" accent in England) are shown here for reference. On the wiki, General American is typically used.

A tilde (~) indicates variance depending on speaker.


Example IPA
but b
cat k
dog d
fish f
goat ɡ
horse h
like l
make m
night n
thing ŋ
part p
rat ɹ
sing s
ship ʃ
tag t
thin θ
the ð
viking v
wait w
what w~hw[note 1]
yes j
zebra z

There are some differences between GA and RP in the treatment of /j/ after certain consonants in some contexts.

Example GA RP
dew d dj
lute l lj
new n nj
assume s sj
tune t tj
enthused θ θj
presume z zj


All but one of the examples in the first two tables are taken from John C. Wells's lexical sets (1982).

Example GA RP
kit ɪ ɪ
dress ɛ ɛ
trap æ æ
lot ɑ ɒ
strut ʌ ʌ
foot ʊ ʊ
bath æ ɑː
cloth ɔ~ɑ ɒ
fleece i
palm ɑ ɑː
thought ɔ~ɑ ɔː
goat əʊ
goose u
choice ɔɪ ɔɪ
happy i i~ɪ
comma ə ə
horses ɪ~ə ɪ

The following table is for postvocalic R. "(ɹ)" is used to simplify this table; it indicates that the sound is present when before a vowel in RP, but absent otherwise.

Example GA RP
nurse ɝ ɜː(ɹ)
near ɪɹ ɪə(ɹ)
square ɛɹ ɛə(ɹ)
start ɑɹ ɑː(ɹ)
north ɔɹ ɔː(ɹ)
cure ʊɹ ʊə(ɹ)
letter ɚ ə(ɹ)

The following table is for vowels that merge before intervocalic R in GA.

Example GA RP
furry ɝ ɜːɹ
hurry ʌɹ
clearer ɪɹ ɪəɹ
mirror ɪɹ
Mary ɛɹ ɛəɹ
marry æɹ
merry ɛɹ
starry ɑɹ ɑːɹ
borrow ɒɹ
horrid ɔɹ
boring ɔːɹ

Other characters

Character Explanation
ˈ Before a syllable, this indicates primary stress.
ˌ Before a syllable, this indicates secondary stress.
. This marks a break between syllables. It is optional.
ː After a vowel sound, this indicates that the sound is pronounced longer.


  1. /hw/ can also be transcribed as /ʍ/.